Several journals have short digest articles highlighting specific research publications. One of the best known examples are the Nature News and Views articles.
They describe these articles like this:
... short, accessible articles focused on one scientific advance independent of the author's own research. They are almost always commissioned by the editors, but suggestions can be made. News and Views articles generally describe a published research report but sometimes take the form of scientific meeting reports. News and Views articles are personal views by specialists in the discipline, and are not usually peer-reviewed. See each journal's guide to authors for more details.
This is common also in other journals, sometimes they're called "Spotlight articles" or "Research highlights". Whether they are peer-reviewed likely differs, but their common ground is that they discuss and highlight a recent paper in the same journal. They always have doi nr and are citeable.
My questions are
In CVs, do people list them under publications, and if not where do they list them?
What about book reviews?
Do people add these type of articles to ResearchGate and Google Scholar?
Do people in general view them as a positive thing for your academic career or a waste of time?
First of all, I wouldn't generally recommend to publish in not peer-reviewed papers, although this is obviously just my personal opinion. If they are counted as publications, this depends on multiple factors, such as your research field, university standards, or the research stage you are in.
- In CVs, do people list them under publications, and if not where do they list them?
Publications can be fine, but not peer-reviewed publications is more accurate.
- What about book reviews?
No. These are not book reviews.
- Do people add these type of articles to ResearchGate and Google Scholar?
It depends. If you are a college student or starting your PhD, yes, it can be better than nothing (or not, depend who you ask). If you are an experienced researcher with a good number of publications, I don't think so, at least, I wouldn't do it.
- Do people in general view them as a positive thing for your academic career or a waste of time?
Same argument than before, in my field and my country are generally considered a waste of time, since they are not positively evaluated in any way and they are not peer reviewed, so you will not get any feedback of the quality of your research.