I am curious to know the kinds of obstacles a US citizen would come across when trying to find work in academia outside the US and/or those that a non-US-citizen faces when trying to get an academic job inside the US.
It would seem that, logistically, it would be easier on the department to hire a citizen over a non-citizen. Is there any advice applicants can follow that would greater their chances? Do you have to be extraordinary for a department to hire you over an equally qualified citizen?
As far as I know the greatest obstacle most of the time is the language (try to work for example in Italy where 90% of the population speak only Italian and some random dialects). On the second place would be the work permit (some countries let you work only if you'll have a certain work permit which is acquired after you do some studies there or the job contractor guarantees a job contract for you). There is also the risk that your studies won't get recognized in the foreign country so you could own some higher education diplomas that in some certain countries are useless.